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You must answer these questions in your own words and in detail
1. How do nonpolar and polar regulatory molecules differ in terms of the location of their receptor proteins
in the target cells and the mechanism of their actions? (2 points)

2. Mannitol is a sugar that does not pass through the walls of the blood capillaries in the brain. It also
does not cross the walls of kidney tubules, the structures that transport blood filtrate to become urine.
Mannitol is used extensively to decrease brain swelling after trauma how would it be able to do that?
(2 points)

3. G-protein coupled receptors are extremely common in the body.

Describe how they work. (2 points)

b. Would they be used by polar or nonpolar molecules? Why? (1 point)

4. Describe the cause-and-effect sequence whereby a genetic defect results in improper cellular
transport of chloride and sodium ions and the symptoms of cystic fibrosis. (3 points)